Chemical Composition of Seawater

From Microcosm Aquarium Explorer

476

Water over an Indo-Pacific coral reef. Larry P. Tackett

Elements Found in Ocean Water

"Ocean: A body of water occupying two-thirds of a world made for man - who has no gills."
Ambrose Bierce

Major Elements (Over 100 ppm)

Constituent - Symbol - Concentration (ppm)

  • Chlorine – Cl - 18,980
  • Sodium – Na - 10,560
  • Magnesium – Mg - 1,280
  • Sulfur – S - 884
  • Calcium – Ca - 400
  • Potassium – K - 380

Minor Elements (1–100 ppm)

  • Bromine – Br - 65
  • Carbon – C - 28
  • Strontium – Sr - 8.5
  • Boron – B - 4.6
  • Fluorine – F - 1.4

Trace Elements (Under 1 ppm)

Biologically Important Trace Elements in Boldface


  • Rubidium – Rb
  • Aluminum – Al
  • Lithium – Li
  • Barium – Ba
  • Iodine – I
  • Silicon – Si
  • Nitrogen – N
  • Zinc – Zn
  • Lead – Pb
  • Selenium – Se
  • Arsenic – As
  • Copper – Cu
  • Tin – Sn
  • Iron – Fe
  • Cesium – Cs
  • Manganese – Mn
  • Phosphorous – P
  • Thorium – Th
  • Mercury – Hg
  • Uranium – U
  • Cobalt – Co
  • Nickel – Ni
  • Radium – Ra
  • Beryllium – Be
  • Cadmium – Cd
  • Chromium – Cr
  • Titanium – Ti
  • Molybdenum – Mo
  • Vanadium – V
  • Antimony – Sb
  • Gold – Au
  • Silver – Ag
  • Krypton – Kr
  • Xenon – Xe
  • Bismuth – Bi
  • Zirconium – Zr
  • Niobium – Nb
  • Thallium – Tl
  • Hafnium – Hf
  • Helium – He
  • Argon – Ar
  • Neon – Ne
  • Tungsten – W
  • Germanium – Ge
  • Rhenium – Re
  • Lanthanum– La
  • Neodymium – Nd
  • Tantalum – Ta
  • Yttrium – Y
  • Cerium – Ce
  • Dysprosium – Dy
  • Erbium – Er
  • Ytterbium – Yb
  • Gadolinium – Gd
  • Praseodymium – Pr
  • Scandium – Sc
  • Holmium – Ho
  • Lutetium – Lu
  • Indium – In
  • Terbium – Tb
  • Samarium – Sm
  • Europium – Eu
  • Protactinium – Pa
  • Radon – Rn
  • Technetium – Tc
  • Ruthenium – Ru
  • Rhodium – Rh
  • Palladium – Pd
  • Osmium – Os
  • Iridium – Ir
  • Platinum – Pt
  • Astatine – At
  • Francium – Fr
  • Actinium – Ac

Source: The Marine Fish Health and Feeding Handbook